(1860-1935) Jane Addams was born September 6,1860. As an American social reformer and Nobel laureate, she played a prominent part inthe formation of the National Progressive Party in 1912, and became chairperson of the Woman's Peace Party in 1915. That same year she was elected president of theInternational Congress of Women at The Hague, and president of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. She was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931.
Susan Brownell Anthony (1820-1906) was born February 15, 1820, in Adams, Massachusetts to Daniel and Lucy Anthony. Susan was a precocious child who learned to read and write at the age of three. In 1826, the Anthony's moved to Battensville, N.Y., where Susan attended a district school. When the teacher refused to teach Susan long division, Susan was taken out of school and taught in a "home school" set up by her father. The school was run by a woman teacher, Mary Perkins. Perkins offered a new image of womanhood to Susan and her sisters.
Susan's first involvement in the world of reform was in the temperance movement. This was one of the first expressions of original feminism in the United States and it dealt with the abuses of women and children who suffered from alcoholic husbands. In 1849, Susan gave her first public speech for the Daughters of Temperance and then helped found the Woman's State Temperance Society of New York. In 1851 she went to Syracuse to attend a series of antislavery meetings. During this time Susan met and befriended Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
In 1872, Susan demanded that women be given the same civil and political rights that had been extended to black males under the 14th and 15th amendments. She was tried and convicted of violating the voting laws, but succeeded in her refusal to pay the fine.
Anton J. Carlson (1875-1956) was the first to receive the American Humanist Association's Humanist of the Year award. The award, made in 1953, recognized his humanism and contributions to education, scientific research, and professional work. He received the American Medical Association's Service Gold Medal the same year. Dr. Carlson was among those to sign the Humanist Manifesto I.
Dr. Carlson was a physiology professor at the University of Chicago and president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. His important services included work as a consultant to the US Food and Drug Administration. His research on diabetes led to the use of insulin. He also contributed to the understanding of alcoholism and human aging. Dr. Carlson'smajor books include the Machinery of the Body, with Victor Johnson, and The Control of Hunger and Disease.
Herman J. Muller noted that Dr. Carlson had the integrity to speak his mind. Said Dr. Carlson, "The supernatural has no support in science, is incompatible with science, (and) is frequently an active foe of science. It is unnecessary for the good life." Born in Sweden in 1875, Dr. Carlson died September 1956.
Auguste Comte (1798-1857) was born at Montpelier, France in 1798. Although his family was devout Catholic, Comte announced at the age of fourteen that he had "naturally ceased believing in God."
Comte is best known today as the father of Grench positivist thought. Positivism may be described as either a philosophical system and method, or as a philosophy of history.
His political philosophy attempted to reconcile science with religion, and the ideals of 1789, with the doctrine of counter revolution of his own time. His influence on 19th century thought, in general, was immense, although he is almost always overshadowded by Marx and Darwin. Positivist societies were formed in England and France, and Comtean churches appeared in far off Brazil. George Eliot and John Stuart Mill were positivists, and the regime of Louis Napoleon -- established in 1851 -- was also influenced by Comte.
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
Born February 19, 1473, in Poland, Copernicus is rated #24 in Michael H. Hart's book The 100 Most Influential Persons in History. Copernicus was a lawyer by profession; astronomy was his hobby. His hobby led him to the heliocentric hypothesis of the Greek philosopher Aristarchus of Samos (third century BCE) and he spent several years taking observations and making calculations to prove Aristarchus' hypothesis that the earth and other planets revolved around the sun. Copernicus' book, On The Revolution of the Celestial Spheres, transformed the 1700- year-old hypothesis into a useful scientific theory, which inspired future scientists Galileo, Kepler and Newton. Scientific reasoning, popularized by Copernicus, is the basis of our humanist philosophy.
Clarence S. Darrow (1857-1938) was born on April 18, 1857, in Kingsman, Ohio. Darrow studied law for a year at the University of Michigan, and began practicing law in Ohio in the early 1880's. He also attended Allegheny College in Pennsylvania. He was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1878 and was there for 9 years. In 1887 he moved to Chicago and worked as an attorney for the city of Chicago.
Darrow became active as a defense attorney for labor unions and served in the Illinois House of Representatives from 1903-1905. He started to specialize in criminal cases. He was nearly 70 years old when he tried his two most spectacular cases. In 1924, he defended Nathan F. Leopold, Jr., and Richard A. Loeb. In 1925, he helped attract widespread attention to the Scopes trial in Dayton, Tennessee. Clarence Darrow was the most famous American lawyer of the early 1900's. His goal was to keep youth from receiving the death sentence, which he strongly opposed. He was a popular lecturer and debater, and published a number of books, including his autobiography and a novel. He was a trial attorney in about 50 murder cases; not one client suffered capital punishment. He died in Chicago on March 13, 1938.
Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882) was a British scientist, who laid the foundation of modern evolutionary theory with his concept of the development of all forms of life through the slow-working process of natural selection. His work was of major influence on the life and earth sciences and on modern thought in general.
In 1827 Darwin dropped out of medical school and entered the University of Cambridge in preparation for becoming a clergyman. There he met John Stevens Henslow, a naturalist. Henslow not only helped build Darwin's self-confidence but also taught his student to be a meticulous and painstaking observer of natural phenomena and collector of specimens. After graduating from Cambridge in 1831, the 22-year old Darwin was taken aboard the English survey ship HMS Beagle, largely on Henslow's recommendation, as an unpaid naturalist on a scientific expedition around the world.
Darwin spent the rest of his life expanding on different aspects of problems raised in the Origin of the Species. His later books were detailed expositions of topics that had been confined to small sections of Origin. The importance of his work was well recognized by his contemporaries; Darwin was elected to the Royal Society (1839) and the French Academy of Sciences (1878). He was also honored by burial in Westminster Abbey after he died in Down, Kent, on April 19, 1882.
Dorthea Dix (1802-1887) is perhaps best known for her work fighting to better the condition of jails and insane asylums. She was born in Hampden, Maine (then an area of Massachusetts, regarded as a frontier) in April, 1802. Beginning roughly in 1841, Dorthea began a crusade for reform in the practices of caring for the mentally ill. Due to the situation at the time, this also meant she pushed for prison reform. In 1845, Ms. Dix wrote Remarks on Prisons and Prison Discipline in the United States. This work discussed anticipated reforms, including the education of prisoners and the separation of various types of offenders.
Dix's appointment as Superintendent of Army Nurses in 1861 generated criticism that would remain consistent throughout the five year assignment. Her well-known insistence that nurses be middle-aged and homely meant turning away a well trained nurse, based simply on physical attributes. Although Dix remained controversial throughout the war, the field of nursing continued to grow after the war, inspired by women such as Florence Nightingale, Dorthea Dix, and those active in the USSC. Dix remained the superintendent of nurses until 1866, when she returned to her true interest of campaigning for better treatment of the mentally ill.
"We must inoculate our children against militarism, by educating them in the spirit of pacifism. Our schoolbooks glorify war and conceal its horrors. They indoctrinate children with hatred. I would teach peace rather than war, love rather than hate."
Albert Einstein (1879-1955) was a great man whose words and actions revolutionized humanity's conception of time, space and energy. He is credited with unlocking many of the universe's secrets and helping to usher in the Nuclear Age. Yet he was not a scientist detached from social responsibility. Dr. Einstein is honored for his ceaseless struggle to achieve peace, world order, and international cooperation. He was a great man who helped shape history.
At the end of World War II, Einstein continued his struggle for peace and world order. He further feared that if global war were to happen a third time, the result would be the total destruction of civilization. When asked what kind of weapons World War III will be fought with, he responded that he did not know but World War IV would be fought with sticks and stones. Einstein campaigned for the abolition of all nuclear weapons and the creation of a World Government with the authority to ensure a secure and lasting peace. Although he died without seeing either of these goals accomplished, he left behind a far-reaching legacy. His words and actions have influenced countless people to campaign for peace and ensure that nuclear weapons are never used again.
Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536) was born Gerrit Gerritszoon October 26, 1466, in Rotterdam. He later assumed the Latin name he is known by. He studied at Cambridge where he became close friends with leading English scholars and helped to establish humanism in England. Many of his writings attacked corrupt church practices and religious scholasticism.
Erasmus expounded enlightened educational views and advocated teaching Latin to children before they started school. His war against superstition and his humanist views resulted in his works being listed in the Index of Forbidden Books by the Council of Trent.
Benjamin Franklin (1706 - 1790)
These few words cannot be expected to do justice to a man who led, by any standards, a full and varied life. Indeed, in these days of specialization it is difficult to take seriously a man whose life encompassed meetings at the American Philosophical Society (which he founded), debates in the Pennsylvania legislature, investigations into the nature of electricity, representing the interests of the Colonists to the English Parliament, negotiating the Treaty of Paris, and many inventions, physical and social, that are still apparent today.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935)
American feminist and writer, best known for her book Women and Economics (1898), which has become a feminist classic. She was born Charlotte Anna Perkins in Hartford, Connecticut. She was educated at the Rhode Island School of Design and worked as a teacher and commercial artist before devoting herself to feminism.
Women and Economics denounces women's financial dependence on men and supports day-care programs and cooperative kitchens. These ideas are explored further in Gilman's books Concerning Children (1900), The Home (1903), and Human Work (1904). Gilman founded the journal Forerunner (1909-16), in which she published feminist stories and articles. She also lectured extensively on women's rights and other social issues.
Gilman's other writings include "The Yellow Wallpaper" (1892), an account of her experience with depression; In This Our World (1893), a collection of poetry; The Man-made World (1911); and His Religion and Hers (1923).
Hudson Hoagland (1891-1973) was selected as Humanist of the Year in 1965 in recognition of his work as a physiologist and for his use of science as an instrument for humanitarian advance. He received the Modern Medicine Award in 1965, and the Worcester Engineering Society Award in 1969. His publications include The Road to Yesterday (1974) and Reflections on Science and Human Affairs (1974). He was one of the founders of the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology and served as its leader from 1944-1967. He was also president of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences for several years.
Dr. Hoagland was a professor at Tufts Medical School, 1946-1950; Boston University, 1950-1968; and Harvard University. He received his education at Columbia University (A.B. 1921), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.S.), Harvard University (Ph.D. 1927), and D.Sc. in 1945 at Colby College.
In the May/June, 1965 issue of The Humanist he wrote, "Our future depends upon an educational system that will teach the young...that the most basic human values which are worthy of loyalty an respect are independent of racial, national, political, and religious boundaries."
Aldous Leonard Huxley (1894-1963) was born on July 26, 1894, into a family that included Thomas Henry Huxley, the great biologist who helped develop the theory of evolution.
When Huxley was 16 and a student, an eye illness made him nearly blind. He recovered enough vision to go on to Oxford University and graduate with honors, but not enough to fight in World War I.
Huxley's emphasis on ideas and his skill as an essayist cannot hide one fact: The books he wrote that are most read and best remembered today are all novels--Corm Yellow, Antic Hay, and Point Counter Point from the 1920s, Brave New World and After Many a Summer Dies the Swan from the 1930s. In 1959 the American Academy of Arts and Letters gave him the Award of Merit for the Novel, a prize given every five years; earlier recipients had been Hemingway, Mann, and Dreiser. The range of Huxley's interests can be seen from his note that his "preliminary research" for Island included "Greek history, Polynesian anthropology, translations from Sanskrit and Chinese of Buddhist texts, scientific papers on pharmacology, neurophysiology, psychology and education, together with novels, poems, critical essays, travel books, political commentaries and conversations with all kinds of people, from philosophers to actresses, from patients in mental hospitals to tycoons in Rolls-Royces...." He used similar, though probably fewer, sources for Brave New World.
He died November 22, 1963, the same day that President John F. Kennedy was assassinated. He was cremated, and his ashes were buried in his parents' grave in England.
Julian Sorell Huxley (1887-1975)
British biologist and author, born in London. He achieved renown both as a scientist and for his ability to make scientific concepts clear to the public. Huxley was one of the most visible scientists of the mid-20th century, popular as a radio and television panelist and as a lecturer. He was particularly interested in concepts of evolution and growth, dealing with them in light of the philosophic problems generated by contemporary scientific developments.
--Encarta Concise Encyclopedia
"This earth is one of the rare spots in the cosmos where mind has flowered. Man is a product of nearly three billion years of evolution, in whose person the evolutionary process has at last become concious of itself and its possibilities. Whether he likes it or not, he is responsible for the whole further evolution of our planet."
During his lifetime, Robert Ingersoll (1833-1899) was America's premier orator and a pioneer humanist. Without the benefit of microphones nor public address systems he lectured to standing room only audiences night after night. Known as the Great Agnostic he criss-crossed the nation, urging people to substitute the superiority of science for the superstition of religion.
Ingersoll's insights advanced the cause of freethought, breaking the monopoly of authoritarian orthodoxy. His commanding appearance and magnificent speaking voice fearlessly supported the rights of women, children and minorities.
The complete works of Ingersoll are preserved in twelve volumes, most of which are available on the Internet at the Secular Web maintained by the self-named "Internet Infidels".
Lester Allen Kirkendall (1904-1991) was cited Humanist of the Year in 1983 for his work as an educator and promoter of a rational approach to family living and human sexuality.
He was author of fifteen pamphlets on family skills, over 300 articles for professional journals, and several books, including Student's Guide to Marriage and Family Life (1980, eighth edition); New Bill of Sexual Rights and Responsibilities (1976); and Goals for American Educators (1948) and was co-editor of Marriage and Family Life in 2020.
Kirkendall received a BS from Kansas State College (now University) in 1928, an MA in 1931 and a PhD in 1935 from Columbia University. He held posts as a public school and college teacher, professor at the University of Oklahoma, US Educational Consultant, and professor at Oregon State University, 1949-1969, Emeritus, 1969. Dr. Kirkendall was a founding member of SIECUS and served on its Board of Directors. He served on the AHA Board of Directors and shared his ideas with many other groups and organizations. "I have taught or lectured in every state of the union, also in Europe, the Middle East, and the Orient," said Dr. Kirkendall. In May, 1991, he died at the age of 87.
Corliss Lamont (1902-1995)
The 28th of March (1996) is the 94th anniversary of the birth of Corliss Lamont, author, educator, philosopher and definer for the philosophy of modern humanism. He was awarded a Ph.D. by Columbia University in 1932. His Ph.D. thesis was titled "Issues of Immortality." Three years later his first major book, based upon his thesis, was published with the title, The Illusion of Immortality. Dr. Lamont was fond of quoting George Santayana’s conclusion: "true wisdom consists in abandoning our illusions."
In 1949 He published The Philosophy of Humanism, which quickly became accepted as the defining work about humanism. Dr. Edwin H. Wilson, founder of the American Humanist Association and our own Utah chapter of AHA, was a close friend and associate of Dr. Lamont. In his foreword to the fifth edition of The Philosophy of Humanism, Dr. Wilson said: "Lamont shows that Humanism involves far more than the negation of supernaturalism."
Imagine there's no heaven
It's easy if you try
No hell below us
Above us only sky
Imagine all the people
Living for today...
Imagine there's no countries
It isn't hard to do
Nothing to kill or die for
And no religion too
Imagine all the people
Living life in peace...
You may say I'm a dreamer
But I'm not the only one
I hope someday you'll join us
And the world will be as one
Imagine no possessions
I wonder if you can
No need for greed or hunger
A brotherhood of man
Imagine all the people
Sharing all the world...
You may say I'm a dreamer
But I'm not the only one
I hope someday you'll join us
And the world will be as one
John Locke (1632-1704)
English philosopher and founder of British empiricism, Locke's two most important works, Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Two Treatises on Civil Government, both published in 1690, established him as the leading philosopher of freedom. In the Essay he opposed the rationalist belief in innate ideas, holding that the mind is born a blank upon which all knowledge is inscribed in the form of human experience. He distinguished the primary qualities of things (e.g., extension, solidity, number) from the secondary qualities (e.g., color, smell, sound), which he held to be produced by the direct impact of the world on the sense organs.
The primary qualities affect the sense organs mechanically, providing ideas that faithfully reflect reality; thus science is possible. In political theory he was equally influential. Locke maintained that the original state of nature was happy and characterized by reason and tolerance: all human beings were equal and free to pursue "life, health, liberty, and possessions." The state formed by the social contract was guided by the natural law, which guaranteed those inalienable rights. He set down the policy of checks and balances later followed in the U.S. Constitution; formulated the doctrine that revolution in some circumstances is not only a right but an obligation; and argued for broad religious freedom. Much of the liberal social, economic, and ethical theory of the 18th century was rooted in Locke's social-contract theories. One of the major influences on modern philosophical and political thought, he epitomized the Enlightenment's faith in the middle class, in the new science, and in human goodness.
Horace Mann (1796-1859), born May 4,1796, was instrumental in establishing mental institutions and the first state board of education in the United States. He generated public support for increasing teacher's pay and improving their training through the establishment of teacher-training schools. He strongly influenced the evolution of modern education.
In 1843 Mann studied educational systems in Europe and upon returning home began major reforms in public education. He urged the abolition of corporal punishment for students and advocated nonsectarian public schools. The opposition he encountered from church officials served to arouse public support for state operated public schools.
Mann became president of Antioch College at Yellow Springs, Ohio, in 1853. He held this post until his death in 1859.
James Michener (1907-1997) was a very prolific author. Among his works are, The Source, Hawaii, Alaska, Centennial, Texas, etc.
I decided (after listening to a "talk radio" commentator who abused, vilified, and scorned every noble cause to which I had devoted my entire life that) I was both a humanist and a liberal, each of the most dangerous and vilified type. I am a humanist because I think humanity can, with constant moral guidance, create a reasonably decent society. I am terrified of restrictive religious doctrine, having learned from history that when men who adhere to any form of it are in control, common men like me are in peril. I do not believe that pure reason can solve the perceptual problems unless it is modified by poetry and art and social vision. So I am a humanist. And if you want to charge me with being the most virulent kind-a secular humanist--I accept the accusation.
John Stewart Mill (1806-1873) stands as a bridge between the 18th-century concern for liberty, reason and science, and the 19th-century trend toward empiricism and collectivism. In philosophy, he systematized the utilitarian doctrines of his father and Jeremy Bentham in such works as Utilitarianism (1836), basing knowledge upon human experience and emphasizing human reason. In political economy, Mill advocated those policies that he believed most consistent with individual liberty, and he emphasized that liberty could be threatened as much by social as by political tyranny.
He is probably most famous for his essay "On Liberty" (1859). He studied pre-Marxian socialist doctrine, and, although he did not become a socialist, he worked actively for improvement of the conditions of the working people. In Parliament, Mill was considered a radical because he supported such measures as public ownership of natural resources, equality for women, compulsory education, and birth control. His advocacy of women's suffrage in the debates on the Reform Bill of 1867 led to the formation of the suffrage movement.
Dr. Henry Morgentaler (1923 - 2013) has spent his life enduring struggles. Born in 1923 in Poland, he spent six years in Nazi concentration camps. After coming to Canada in 1950, he took on the struggle for abortion rights, spending much time in and out of Canadian prisons as a result of his efforts to provide women with access to safe medical abortions. Although he was arrested numerous times, no jury would convict him. In honor of his dedication to this struggle, Dr. Morgentaler was named the first Humanist of the Year by the Canadian Humanist Association in 1973 and Humanist of the Year by the American Humanist association in 1975.
Linus Carl Pauling (1901-1904) was born in Portland, Oregon, on February 28, 1901. His education was delayed because of financial responsibility for his mother and younger siblings (his father died when he was 9). In 1925 he received his Ph.D. in chemistry at the California Institute of Technology, where he served on the faculty until 1964. In 1969, Dr. Pauling became Research Professor, then president, at Linus Pauling Institute of Science and Medicine, Menlo Park, California.
Dr. Pauling has been deeply concerned with the alleviation of human suffering and has taken some unpopular positions. For example, he was against cigarette smoking, war, nuclear weapons, and allowing preventable hereditary diseases in humans to continue.
His achievements in science, medicine, and human welfare have brought him many honorary degrees and awards, including the 1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry and the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962.
He has published more than 400 papers and books including General Chemistry, The Architecture of Molecules (with Roger Hayward), and No More War!
A. Philip Randolph (1889-1979) received the Humanist of the Year award in 1970 for his tireless work to advance the rights of black Americans.
He was born in Florida in 1889, later moving to New York City where he attended City College of New York. Socialist Eugene V. Debs influenced Mr. Randolph's political views and in 1917 he began a radical black journal, the Messenger. He urged blacks to join labor unions, promoted solidarity between black and white laborers, and concerned himself with inner-city blacks. He organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (AFL) in 1925 and was its president. During the 30's he was president of the National Negro Congress and in 1957 a vice president of the AFL-CIO.
In 1941, when defense plants refused to hire blacks, Mr. Randolph planned a protest march on Washington. The march was forestalled when President Roosevelt issued a fair employment practices Executive Order. In 1947 he pressed for the end of segregation in the armed forces. In 1948 President Truman signed an Executive Order prohibiting such segregation. In 1963 Mr. Randolph directed the huge March for Jobs and Freedom in Washington, D.C. He died May 16, 1979, in New York City at the age of 90.
Jeanette Rankin (1880-1973) was born on June 11, 1880, near Missoula, Montana. Educated in the public schools, she graduated from the University of Montana in 1902 and studied at the School of Philanthropy in New York City. She undertook social work in Seattle, Washington, in 1909 and in subsequent years worked for womens' suffrage in Washington, California, and Montana. She traveled to New Zealand in 1915 and gained first-hand knowledge of social conditions by working as a seamstress.
In 1916, Rankin became the first woman elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. She was an unsuccessful candidate for the Republican Senate nomination in 1918, engaged in social work for the next three decades, and was re-elected to the House in 1940. She did not seek re-election in 1942. In her last 30 years she was a rancher, a lecturer, and a lobbyist for peace and women's rights.
Rankin supported the cause of peace throughout her life. She voted against America's entry into World Wars I and II, and she was the only member of Congress to oppose the declaration of war on Japan. She died in Carmel, California, on May 18, 1973.
Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) was an English logician who founded analytic philosophy. After a stint of mathematics at Cambridge in the 1890s, Russell turned in earnest to the study of logic. Heavily influenced by Bradley's teachings at Cambridge, Russell developed, in response to his teachings, a new idea called monadism. His first book was An Essay on the Foundations of Geometry (1897). Some of his other works of his early period include The Principles of Mathematics (1903), and A Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz (1900). Soon he discovered Peano's symbolic logic, and his career took a new direction. He wrote Principia Mathematica (1910-1913) with Whitehead, in an attempt to prove that the whole of mathematics is derivable from logical principles.
Together with Albert Einstein, he released the Russell-Einstein Manifesto in 1955, calling for the curtailment of nuclear weapons. In 1957, he was a prime organizer of the first Pugwash Conference, which brought together scientists concerned about the proliferation of nuclear weapons. He became the founding president of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament in 1958 and was once again imprisoned, this time in connection with anti-nuclear protests, in 1961. Upon appeal, his two-month prison sentence was reduced to one week in the prison hospital. He remained a prominent public figure until his death nine years later at the age of 97.
Carl Sagan (1934 - 1996) was a man of many talents. Many thought that his greatest contribution to humankind was his work with the Voyager series space craft. As one of the pioneers of the US space exploration effort his influence, insights, and inspirational leadership are indeed to leave a legacy where subsequent generations will revere him as great.
However, to most of us I think that his unique ability to describe complex scientific concepts to anyone will be what we remember most. His PBS series Cosmos had, and continues to have, a profound influence on everyone who watches. How many scientists of his fame choose to publish in Parade Magazine?
His easy going manner, lilting voice and pleasant smile captured the hearts and minds of millions. He is truly missed.
Jonas Salk, M.D. (1940-1995)
In the 1950's, summertime was a time of fear and anxiety for many parents; this was the season when children by the thousands became infected with the crippling disease poliomyelitis. This burden of fear was lifted forever when it was announced that Dr. Jonas Salk had developed a vaccine against the disease. Salk became world-famous overnight, but his discovery was the result of many years of painstaking research. Salk was hailed as a miracle worker. He further endeared himself to the public by refusing to patent the vaccine. He had no desire to profit personally from the discovery, but merely wished to see the vaccine disseminated as widely as possible. In countries where Salk's vaccine has remained in use, the disease has been virtually eradicated.
In 1963, Salk founded the Jonas Salk Institute for Biological Studies, an innovative center for medical and scientific research. Jonas Salk continued to conduct research and publish books, some written in collaboration with one or more of his sons, who are also medical scientists.
Salk's published books include Man Unfolding (1972), The Survival of the Wisest (1973), World Population and Human Values: A New Reality (1981), and Anatomy of Reality (1983).
Dr. Salk's last years were spent searching for a vaccine against AIDS. Jonas Salk died on June 23, 1995. He was 80 years old.
George Santayana (1863-1952) was a Harvard Professor, philosopher, author, and poet:
Progress, far from consisting in change, depends on retentiveness. Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.
By nature's kindly disposition most questions which it is beyond a man's power to answer do not occur to him at all.
Fashion is something barbarous, for it produces innovation without reason and imitation without benefit.
Science is nothing but developed perception,interpreted intent, common sense rounded out and minutely articulated.
There is no cure for birth and death save to enjoy the interval.
Santayana, born Jorge Augustin Nicolas Ruiz de Santayana, was a philosopher, poet and novelist. He was born in Madrid and moved to Bosten in 1872. He was educated at Harvard, where he became professor of philosophy (1907 - 1912), while retaining his Spanish nationality.
Santayana's writing career began as a poet with Sonnets and Other Verses (1894), but he later became known as a philosopher and stylist, in such works as The Life of Reason (5 vols, 1905-1906), Realms of Being (4 vols, 1927-1940), and his novel The Last Puritan (1935). He moved to Europe in 1912, stayed in Oxford during World War I, then settled in Rome.
Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) was born on January 14, 1875, in Kaysersburg, France. He based his personal philosophy on a "reverence for life? and on a deep commitment to serve humanity through thought and action. For his many years of humanitarian effort, Schweitzer was awarded the 1952 Nobel Peace Prize.
By the time he was 21, Schweitzer had decided on the course for his life. For nine years he would dedicate himself to the study of science, music, and theology. The he would devote the rest of his life to serving humanity directly. Before he was 30 he was a respected writer on theology, an accomplished organist, and an authority on the life and work of Johann Sebastian Bach.
In 1905 Schweitzer decided to become a medical missionary. He studied medicine from 1905 to 1913 at the University of Strasbourg. He also raised money to establish ha hospital in French Equatorial Africa. He founded a hospital there in 1913 which over the years grew into a large institution that serves thousands of Africans. Schweitzer used his $33,000 Nobel Prize to expand the hospital and to build a leper colony. In 1955 Queen Elizabeth II awarded Schweitzer the "Order of Merit," Britains highest civilian honor.
Burrhus Frederick Skinner (1904-1990) was born in 1904. He studied English and Classics at Hamilton College where he received an A.B. in 1926. He entered the graduate program in psychology at Harvard, earning his Ph.D. in 1936. His dissertation, regarded as a classic of its time, sowed the seeds of the theoretical position argued that all behavior could be explained by examining the stimuli that bring it about.
Skinner is considered by many to be the most important figure in twentieth-century psychology. Throughout his career he has insisted that psychology be a scientific, empirically driven discipline, devoted to the collection of massive numbers of observations of behaviors and the stimuli that bring them about.
Skinner died August 18, 1990, after a long battle with leukemia. He continued to write and work until just before his death. In fact, he was given a lifetime achievement award by the American Psychological Association and delivered a 15 minute address concerning his work only a few days before he died.
Lucy Stone (1818-1893) became the first Massachusetts women to earn a college degree. At the age of 25 she entered Oberlin, a pioneering co-educational college. Her study of Greek and Hebrew convinced her that crucial passages in the Bible (those declaring woman inferior) had been translated wrongly.
Stone was a gifted public speaker and a dedicated abolitionist. Soon she was appointed a lecturer for the American Anti-slavery Society. Her natural eloquence drew large crowds, though she often had to face hostility. She delivered a speech on women's rights that converted Susan B. Anthony to the cause.
When she married Henry Blackwell (brother of Elizabeth Blackwell) Lucy Stone kept her own name, thus coining the phrase "Lucy Stoner" to describe a married women who retains her maiden name.
Lucy Stone took the lead in organizing the American Woman Suffrage Association. This group, considered the most moderate wing of the women suffrage movement, conflicted with Stanton and Anthony over policy and tactics. Lucy Stone and her husband founded and edited the organization's weekly newspaper, The Woman's Journal, which was considered "the voice of the woman's movement." Lucy Stone spent her lifetime battling for women's rights and inspiring others to join her cause.
Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811-1896) was born June 14, 1811. She authored Uncle Tom's Cabin, one of the most powerful novels in American Literature. It was serialized in an abolitionist paper, the "National Era," and issued as a book in 1852. The success of the book was unprecedented; 500 thousand copies were sold in the United States within five years and it was translated into more than twenty foreign languages. The book energized antislavery sentiment in the North and was a significant factor in precipitating the American Civil War.
Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) was a classical rebel against the established orders of society and government. He built a small cabin at Walden Pond, two miles from Concord, Massachusetts, and moved into it on July 4, 1845. During his more than two years of living in solitude, he wrote two major works and composed hundreds of pages of his personal journal.
He vowed not to support a government that permitted slavery and was forced to spend time in jail for refusing to pay a poll tax. When his close friend Ralph Waldo Emerson asked him what he was doing in there, Thoreau responded, What you are doing out there? Thoreau is an inspiration for those supporting the principles of humanism.
Kurt Vonnegut (1922 - 2007) was born November 11, 1922. He is a person who is "historic" while still living. He is, in this writer's opinion, the world's greatest living writer of English language fiction.
The defining time of Vonnegut's life came during World War II when he was a prisoner of war in Dresden during the allied fire bombing of that old city. He spent the next months cleaning up the city, looking for bodies among the wreckage. He vowed to write a book on the experience, and worked for many years before producing Slaughterhouse Five, or the Children's Crusade. It is a definitive account of the horrors and senselessness of war. The hero, Bill Pilgrim, is "unstuck in time," and hence the book follows a thematic chronology that is not consistent with the normal passage of time.
Readers unfamiliar with Vonnegut's style would do better to start elsewhere in his canon, with something a little more conventional like: Player Piano, or Mother Night. My personal favorite is Slapstick, or Lonesome No More. For a quick sample of Vonnegut's genius, get a copy of Welcome the Monkey House, a collection of early short stories.
Vonnegut is the current honorary president of the American Humanist Association. I encourage you to sample his literary genius.
Kurt Vonnegut died on April 11, 2007.
Earl Warren (1891-1974) did not immediately manifest the libertarian activism that would eventually result in all-out assaults on the Court, accompanied by the distribution of 'Impeach Earl Warren' bumper stickers and Warren Impeachment Kits. By mid-1956 it had become crystal clear that, as Chief Justice of the United States, Earl Warren was in the process of providing leadership for a libertarian activist approach to public law and personal rights that went far beyond the Eisenhower brand of progressive Republicanism.
The Chief Justice, usually with Justices Black and Douglas (and later Brennan) by his side, wrought a constitutional revolution in the application of the Bill of Rights to the states; in the generous interpretation of specific provisions of criminal-justice safeguards for the individual; in the application and interpretation of the Civil War amendments; in the liberalization of the right to foreign travel, to vote, the right to run for office, and the right to fair representation, to 'one person, one vote'; an elevated commitment to freedom of expression; and in many other sectors of the freedom of the individual. He was the Chief Justice par excellence-second in institutional-leadership greatness only to John Marshall himself. Like Marshall he understood and utilized the tools of pervasive and persuasive power leadership available to him; he knew how to bring men together, how to set a tone, and how to fashion a mood. He was a wise man and a warm, kind human being. He was his Court, the Court.
When Faye Wattleton (1943 - Current) was chosen Humanist of the Year in 1986 she was a special awardee. She was the youngest person, first black woman, second black, and sixth woman so honored. Ms. Wattleton's contribution to humanity is her work as president of Planned Parenthood of America, which extends to 120 countries.
Ms. Wattleton was born in St. Louis, Missouri, on July 8, 1943. In 1964, she earned a degree in nursing at Ohio State University. She taught nursing for two years in Ohio, and in 1966 earned an MA at Columbia University in maternal and infant care. She saw the need for birth control and life-saving abortions while interning at a Harlem hospital. She volunteered at Planned Parenthood and in 1971 became executive director of an Ohio chapter. Due to her excellent leadership, Ms. Wattleton became president of Planned Parenthood of America in 1978. She is a skillful speaker, appearing for Planned Parenthood on national television.
Ms. Wattleton develops educational programs for health centers and fights those who commit terrorist acts against women's clinics. She directs national opposition to world political forces that support historic patterns of sex and race discrimination.
Since retiring from KSL Radio in 1986 Florien Wineriter's focus has been his philosophy. For decades Wineriter was a broadcast journalist and radio personality for KSL and KALL radio stations. He also served a year as a state legislator in 1957 for western Salt Lake County. "I think a highlight was when KSL asked me to work as their political specialist," Wineriter said. He was sent to cover the turbulent Democratic and Republican national conventions in 1968 and covered the Utah State Legislature Wineriter is fascinated by the American political system due to its capacity for public participation.
He was raised in the LDS Church but joined the Unitarian Church in 1952. In the 1930's several Unitarian clergymen in Chicago joined to form an organization that had a humanist philosophy. This subsidiary of the church has become the American Humanist Association. "Philosophically they're very close," Wineriter says of the church he attends and the thought that he lives by.
Humanism is a philosophy where human interests, values, and ethics predominate. Wineriter describes it as promoting "individual responsibility," outside of the dogma of a religious institution. The idea that humans should do the right thing because it is the right thing not to reach some kind of eternal salvation. "We take one life at a time," he quipped.
Wineriter is the president of the Humanists of Utah a local chapter of the American Humanists Association. The group holds lectures and discussions on the first and second Thursday's of each month at the First Unitarian Church, 569 S. 1300 East. He has attended the Humanist Institute in New York giving him the title of pastoral counselor, which carries much of the same duties and responsibilities of a religious leader. He is also on the ethics committee at St. Mark's Hospital as the Humanist representative and works with Hospice. Wineriter attributes his community interest to a combination of his LDS upbringing and his personal belief's as aided by humanist teachings.
"It's just my basic philosophy that every person has a responsibility to leave this world a better place than you came into," he said. He also feels that being raised in the LDS church taught him community involvement. "I gave up the theology but maintained the sociology of [the church]," he said.
Debbie Hummell, Tribune Staff Writer
Published in The Salt Lake Tribune
October 4, 1998
Victoria Woodhull (1838-1927) was the first woman to run for the US presidency. Woodhull was born September 23, 1838, in Homer, Ohio. She was a co-founder of a New York newspaper, "Woodhull and Clafin's Weekly," published from 1870 to 1876. The publication endorsed equal rights for women, free love, and a variety of other liberal causes, gaining her a reputation as a radical feminist. In 1871 she argued for women's suffrage before the Judiciary Committee of the US House of Representatives.
In May of 1872, Woodhull was nominated for the US Presidency by the Equal Rights Party, an offshoot of Susan B. Anthony's National American Woman Suffrage Association.